Reasoning badly and reasoning well: A primer on practical reasoning — There are two difficulties. One lies in the intellect, because students may not know how to reason well. The other lies in the will, because they may not want to. Those who do want to reason well can be taught how to do so, although the modern university doesn’t seem very interested in teaching them. Sometimes the sheer discovery that there is a difference between valid and invalid arguments begins whittling away the relativistic prejudice.